12.1 In-text Citations

In-text citations always appear right after the content you are summarizing, paraphrasing, or quoting. The format is as follows:

Summarizing or Paraphrasing

  • (Author, YYYY)


  • (Author, YYYY, p. #) 1 page
  • (Author, YYYY, pp. ##-##) Multiple pages

Narrative vs Parenthetical

If you mention the author or authors in text, you do not need to include this information in the brackets, "()". This is called a narrative citation.

Narrative in-text citation: Raimi (2018) outlines the risks and benefits of fracking through economic analysis and energy security benefits.

The alternative is called a parenthetical citation.

Parenthetical in-text citation: Several benefits and risks can be identified in the implementation of fracking for oil extraction. Considerations include regulation, water pollution, tremors etc. (Raimi, 2018).

Quick Format Guide

# of Authors Narrative Example Parenthetical Example
1 Bradley (2017) (Bradley, 2017)
2 Janmaat and Rahimova (2018) (Janmaat & Rahimova, 2018)
3 or more Mei et al. (2018) (Mei et al., 2018)