In-text citations always appear right after the content you are summarizing, paraphrasing, or quoting. The format is as follows:
Summarizing or Paraphrasing
- (Author, YYYY)
- (Author, YYYY, p. #)
- (Author, YYYY, pp. ##-##)
If you mention the author or authors in text, you do not need to include this information in the brackets, "()". This is called a narrative citation.
Narrative in-text citation: Raimi (2018) outlines the risks and benefits of fracking through economic analysis and energy security benefits.
The alternative is called a parenthetical citation.
Parenthetical in-text citation: Several benefits and risks can be identified in the implementation of fracking for oil extraction. Considerations include regulation, water pollution, tremors etc. (Raimi, 2018).