Posters are commonly used throughout the academic community to communicate scientific research to fellow scientists. What is great about a research poster is that you have the opportunity to summarize in a clear and concise way all that you have done and what you have found in a very attractive and informative format.
Posters are typically a mix of text, figures, tables, graphs and other data. The researchers stand out in front of their poster and present their poster to a small audience (in some cases just one person will be there). Posters also allow for more in-depth conversation about the research than one would expect at a regular presentation, which is part of why scientists like them so much.